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What is Climate Change?

The world's climate has been experiencing significant changes during recent decades compared with the more distant past. These recent changes in climate affect the species and geography of our planet in many ways, are already having a significant impact on human life, and are set to become more powerful and frequent as time goes on. The term climate change refers to changes in the expected patterns of climate behaviour according to records and research. Climate change therefore would include (for example) a series of lower-than-usual temperatures year on year as well as higher than usual temperatures, and would also include phenomena such as less predictable weather and more variation in seasonal norms, and more extreme forms of weather than expected, such as deeper droughts, worse floods, stronger winds, etc. Scientific observations worldwide about climate change are brought together and assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

More about climate change

As noted by many hundreds of reputable scientists, the world’s climate has experienced significant changes during recent decades compared with the more distant past. These recent changes in climate affect the living creatures and geography of our planet in many ways.

Global Warming

Global warming refers specifically to observations that the overall average surface temperature of the world seems to be rising. Scientists are aware that temperatures around the world naturally vary widely, but after taking readings at specific locations over a long period of time, it can be seen that more places are warming up than are cooling down. Between 1901 and 2012, it is believed that the earth’s average surface temperature has risen by 0.89°C.

Climate Change International and Regional Context

Countries agreed in Paris to a legally binding treaty on climate change under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The “Paris Agreement” comes into force on 4th November 2016, after having met necessary ratifications. The core mitigation component of the Paris agreement is Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) that each willing Party agrees to make towards the agreed global goal of limiting global temperature rise definitely below 2 degrees C while making all the efforts to limit it below 1.5 degrees C. Various elements of Paris Agreement essentially include all the elements of future climate regime necessary for implementation of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), including capacity building, mitigation and adaptation framework, technology transfer, climate finance, intergovernmental cooperation, private sector engagement etc. The agreement will come into force post-2020. The role that market mechanisms will play is, to a large extent, dependent upon the nature and scope of the INDCs.

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